I know there are two main types of motivation: instrumental motivation and integrative motivation. If you have set a certain score of an English proficiency test as a future goal and work on it, you have instrumental motivation. This is probably because you know that your test score will affect your future career path. Some Japanese companies require the candidates for managerial positions to have a certain test score of an English proficiency test. The higher position means the higher salary, and the higher social status means the more personal satisfaction. There is no doubt that quite a few people are involved in this test (in most cases, the test is TOEIC). If you keep studying English for this purpose with instrumental motivation, however, the English uttered by you may turn out a bit weird from the viewpoint of those who study the same language with integrative motivation. Some people like me want to join the circle of native English-speaking people at the beginning of their pursuit of the language. If so, they are more likely to choose a book with lots of sentences actually uttered by native English speakers. The content, as well as its conversation structure is different from that of test preparation books. Test prep references, on the other hand, cater to test-takers whose primary purpose of learning English is to get a good score on the test. Accordingly, those books offer what seems too logical, and they have limited numbers of topics in them. This affects learners’ perception of what English conversations should look like. Many learners with instrumental motivation find it hard to keep the conversation going, because that not what the proficiency test asks them to; on the other hand, many learners with integrative motivation find it hard to make a grammatically correct sentence or stop excessive use of slang and colloquial expressions. Overwhelmingly difficult as it seems, an ideal learner must take an integrated approach to mastery of the target language.
The December TOEFL workshop will be offered on 12/6. More info at http://www.shikenyajuku.com/